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A basidiospore is a reproductive spore produced by Basidiomycete fungi. Basidiospores typically each contain one haploid nucleus that is the product of meiosis, and they are produced by specialized fungal cells called basidia. In gills under a cap of one common species in the phylum of Basidiomycota, there exist millions of basidia. Mature state of basidia has the base usually topped with four basidiospores in which contains one from the two haploid nucleus obtained from the process of meiosis. Because of this, a single mushroom has the ability to release a billion spores. Most basidiospores are forcibly discharged, and are thus considered ballistospores. Basidiomycetes form sexual spores externally from a structure called a basidium. Four basidiospores develop on appendages from each basidium. These spores serve as the main air dispersal units for the fungi. The spores are released during periods of high humidity and generally have a night-time or pre-dawn peak concentration in the atmosphere. When basidiospores encounter a favorable substrate, they may germinate, typically by forming hyphae. These hyphae grow outward from the original spore, forming an expanding circle of mycelium. The circular shape of a fungal colony explains the formation of fairy rings, and also the circular lesions of skin-infecting fungi that cause ringworm. Some basidiospores germinate repetitively by forming small spores instead of hyphae.