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Psilocybe – The mysterious psychedelic genus

Magic Mushrooms

Psilocybe (/ˌsaɪloʊˈsaɪbi/ SY-loh-SY-bee) is a genus (category) of mushrooms that have gills underneath the cap as their defining feature. They belong to the family of Hymenogastraceae and most species in the Psilocybe genus contain psychedelic compounds psilocybin and psilocin.

Psilocybe mushrooms have been interesting to researchers for decades due to the fact that most species have captivating and mind-altering properties and medical significance, such as for the treatment of depression. Since researchers estimate that less than 1% of mushrooms are known to the public, the cultural, therapeutic, and scientific significance of this genus alone is yet to be fully discovered.

This article aims to provide researchers and enthusiasts with an informative overview of the history, taxonomy, and scientific studies related to Psilocybe mushrooms.



What do Psilocybe mushrooms look like? These fruit bodies can be small and nondescript, often resembling the common “little brown mushrooms.” Still, they can exhibit a range of colors, from brown to yellow-brown, with caps that are hygrophanous, meaning they change color with moisture. When it comes to spore prints, Psilocybe can display hues of lilac-brown to dark purple-brown, and in some cases, even rusty-brown tones. 

Notably, hallucinogenic species of Psilocybe exhibit a distinct blue-staining reaction when their fruit bodies are bruised. Microscopically, these mushrooms are characterized by their pileipellis, which consists of hyphae running parallel to the cap surface, forming a cutis.

They lack chrysocystidia and have smooth spores that can take the shape of ellipsoids, rhomboids, or subhexagons, featuring a noticeable apical germ pore. Ecologically, all Psilocybe species are saprotrophs, meaning they thrive by decomposing different forms of organic matter.

Distribution and habitat

Psilocybe have a global distribution, spanning various biomes across the world. The neotropical regions, including Mesoamerica, Brazil, and Chile, exhibit the highest species diversity within the genus.

While some species, like Psilocybe cyanescens, are commonly found in landscaped areas mulched with woodchips, they are relatively rare in natural settings away from human influence. Psilocybe species exclusively don’t just grow on feces, only a minority of species, such as P. cubensis and P. subcubensis do.

Many other species inhabit diverse habitats, such as mossy areas, grasslands, and forest humus soils. Researchers have found out that Psilocybe mushrooms are adaptable to different ecological niches, making them fascinating subjects for study and exploration.


Psilocybe mushrooms contain psilocybin, which is a hallucinogenic compound. This compound is derived from an amino acid called tryptophan and goes through various chemical changes to produce psychedelic substances. One of these substances, psilocin, is responsible for the mushrooms’ strong hallucinogenic properties.

Psilocin has a structure similar to serotonin. Interestingly, some Psilocybe turn blue when damaged, indicating the presence of psilocin and psilocybin. 

Researchers are investigating the effects of the alkaloids found in Psilocybe mushrooms and exploring their potential benefits. 

Potential therapeutic uses of psilocybe 

Psilocybe mushrooms have gained attention for their potential therapeutic applications in various fields. While research is still ongoing, here are some potential therapeutic uses that have been explored:

  1. Mental health disorder researchPsilocybin, the active compound in Psilocybe mushrooms, has shown promise in the treatment of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It has been observed to induce profound and long-lasting positive changes in mood, perception, and overall well-being.

  2. Addiction treatment research: Psilocybin-assisted therapy has been investigated as a potential treatment for addiction, particularly for substance use disorders such as nicotine and alcohol dependence. It is believed to help individuals gain new perspectives, increase self-awareness, and reduce cravings.

  3. Palliative care research: Psilocybin therapy has shown potential in improving the quality of life for patients with terminal illnesses. It can help reduce anxiety, depression, existential distress, and improve end-of-life psychological well-being.

  4. Cluster headaches: Psilocybin has been studied for its potential to alleviate cluster headaches, a severe and debilitating neurological condition. After the study some individuals have reported a significant reduction in the frequency and intensity of cluster headaches after psilocybin treatment.

  5. Creativity and problem-solving: Psilocybin has been found to enhance creativity and problem-solving abilities. It can promote divergent thinking, increase openness, and facilitate new perspectives, which may have implications for creative problem-solving and cognitive flexibility.

It’s important to note that the therapeutic uses of Psilocybe mushrooms are still being explored, and further research and clinical trials are needed to establish their safety, efficacy, and appropriate guidelines for use.



At the federal level, Psilocybe are classified as Schedule I controlled substances, which means they are considered illegal to possess, cultivate, or distribute under the Controlled Substances Act. This classification is primarily based on their hallucinogenic properties and potential for abuse.

Several cities such as Denver, Colorado, and Oakland and Santa Cruz, California, have decriminalized the possession and use of Psilocybe mushrooms for personal, non-commercial purposes. These local measures typically make the enforcement of laws related to Psilocybe mushrooms a low priority for law enforcement.

Additionally, there are ongoing efforts to further change the legal status of Psilocybe mushrooms. Some states, including Oregon and California, have initiatives and legislation in progress to legalize or decriminalize the therapeutic use of Psilocybe mushrooms under specific circumstances.


Possession of Psilocybe spores is not explicitly regulated at the federal level since the spores themselves don’t contain the controlled substances. However, several US states, including California, Georgia, and Idaho, have prohibited the possession of spores due to their potential to be cultivated into hallucinogenic drugs. 

Notable species

Psilocybe cubensis

Psilocybe cubensis is one of the most well-known and widely cultivated species of psilocybin mushrooms. It has a distinct golden to tan-colored cap and is recognized for its potent psychedelic effects. The most popular strains for researching in the Psilocybe cubensis family are:

Psilocybe semilanceata

Psilocybe semilanceata, commonly known as the “Liberty Cap,” is a notable species of psychedelic mushrooms belonging to the Psilocybe genus.Psilocybe semilanceata is characterized by its small, cone-shaped cap and slender stem. The cap often has a distinctive pointed nipple-like shape, and its color can vary from light brown to a yellowish or olive shade. As a wild mushroom species, variations within Psilocybe semilanceata are typically attributed to environmental factors rather than specific strains.

Psilocybe cyanescens

Psilocybe cyanescens, commonly known as the “Wavy Cap,” is a notable species of psilocybin-containing mushrooms within the Psilocybe genus. It is known for its robust nature and potent psychedelic effects. One of the distinguishing features of Psilocybe cyanescens is its bluing reaction. When bruised or handled, the mushroom’s flesh and mycelium can turn blue due to the oxidation of psilocin and other compounds found in the mushroom. A few recognized species are:

  • Psilocybe cyanescens var. Oregonensis
  • Psilocybe cyanescens var. cyanescens

Psilocybe azurescens

Psilocybe azurescens, commonly known as the “Flying Saucer” or “Azure Bluing Mushroom,” is known for its caramel to dark brown cap, which can reach a diameter of several centimeters. The gills are initially white but turn dark purple to black as the mushroom matures. Unlike cultivated mushrooms, wild species like Psilocybe azurescens do not typically have distinct strains like those found in cultivated psilocybin mushrooms.

Psilocybe baeocystis

Psilocybe baeocystis, commonly known as the “Baeocystis,” is a species of psychedelic mushrooms within the Psilocybe genus. It can range from caramel to dark brown and has a distinct convex shape that flattens with age. The gills are initially grayish but darken to purple-brown as the mushroom matures. 

1. Psilocybin 

Psilocybin is a naturally derived psychedelic compound present in specific mushroom species, commonly known as “magic mushrooms” or “psilocybin mushrooms.” It falls under the category of tryptamines, sharing a chemical resemblance to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

2. Psilocin

Psilocin is a psychoactive compound that is closely related to psilocybin. It is the active metabolite of psilocybin, meaning that when psilocybin is ingested, it is converted into psilocin in the body.

3. Psilocybe mushroom spore 

Psilocybe mushroom spores refer to the reproductive cells or units of the Psilocybe mushroom. Spores are microscopic structures produced by the mushroom’s fruiting body, typically found in the gills or pores. Spores are essential for the reproduction and propagation of Psilocybe mushrooms.

They are released from the mature mushroom’s fruiting body and are dispersed into the environment. When conditions are favorable, spores can germinate and develop into mycelium, which is the vegetative part of the fungus. The mycelium then grows, eventually forming a new fruiting body with the potential to produce more spores.

Psilocybe mushroom spores are of particular interest to hobbyists and researchers. We don’t promote the cultivation of psilocybin “magic” mushrooms under any circumstances.

Fungus Head – Research Psilocybe mushroom spores yourself

If you want to discover the fifth kingdom by yourself, Fungushead is the right place.  Our spores are of great interest to researchers who study the chemistry, identification, spore discharge capacity, and distribution of magic mushrooms. By examining these spores under a microscope, researchers can gather valuable information about their color, size, shape, and behavior, which contributes to a better understanding of the mushroom’s overall biology.

Fungushead’s mushroom spore syringe kit comes with a 10cc syringe pre-filled with your choice of spore solution, as well as an alcohol swab and a sterile lancet for research purposes.

Check out our selection of magic mushroom spores selected from isolated genetics to give you the best possible material for research purposes.

Penis Envy syringesPenis Envy strain, a member of the Psilocybe cubensis family, named after a  striking resemblance to male genitalia, elongated stem, and bulbous brown head, this strain captivates the attention of magic mushroom enthusiasts. It packs a powerful punch with its high potency and psilocybin content. Look into the extraordinary and highly sought-after Penis Envy strain today.
B+ syringesB+, a captivating strain of Psilocybe cubensis distinguished by its unique mutation. B+ spored stand out as an intriguing specimen for research purposes due to its features including a dome-shaped cap in rich brown hues and a semi-wide stem.
Blue Meanie syringesDistinguished by its unique blue color, dome-shaped cap, and slender stem, Blue Meanie presents an intriguing specimen for research purposes. With its notable potency and distinctive black spores, Blue Meanie is amazing for embarking on your research journey.
Golden Teacher syringesThe Golden Teacher strain is distinguished by its golden-yellow coloration, saucer-shaped cap, and thin stem. It is a subject of keen interest in mycological studies due to its unique physical characteristics. We invite you to explore the scientific aspects of the Golden Teacher strain in your research endeavors.
Purple Mystic syringesPurple Mystic, a unique strain originating from Florida and has a flat board cap with a golden brown hue complemented by a captivating purple halo. Along with a slim and tall stem adorned in shades of purple and blue. Researchers are interested in its fast fruiting and high potency,
Jedi Mindfuck syringesThe Jedi Mind Fuck strain, a well-known member of the Psilocybe cubensis family. With its dome-shaped cap, light brown color, and prominent gills, it’s a unique cross-over of different strains. Order your Jedi Mind Fuck mushroom spores today.
Malabar syringesMalabar stands out with its impressive size, offering researchers an intriguing subject for scientific exploration. It has a rounded cap with a dark brown hue and a thick, fleshy stem. Malabar is ready for your microscope right away.
Stargazer syringesThe Stargazer is a remarkable strain of Psilocybe cubensis originating from South America. It has dark gills and long stem, and appears in small yet abundant clusters, boasting dome-shaped caps adorned with captivating red-brown to golden-brown colors and intriguing spots. Resilient and highly potent, this strain offers researchers an ideal specimen for scientific exploration. Get the Stargazer spores under your microscope today.
Albino Penis Envy swabWith a unique blend of genetics derived from traditional PE, Albino Penis Envy offers a fascinating subject for advanced researchers. Its color is usually dark purple-brown color, short and stubby, with white aging gills and small caps. Get our exclusive Albino Penis Envy swab microscopy kit designed for research enthusiasts today.
Trinity swabRenowned for its remarkable potency, Trinity is a unique hybrid born from the merging of esteemed strains, including the iconic Penis Envy and Golden Teacher. Unleash the potential of Trinity for your research and order our Trinity Swab Microscopy Kit now.

Visit our store to find the best spores for microscopy research. Please note that all content and images on our website are for informational purposes only and should be used as a reference. The cultivation of psilocybin mushrooms is federally illegal in the United States, and we do not endorse or promote their cultivation under any circumstances.

We are unable to provide advice or assistance on this subject. Our products, including psilocybin mushroom spores, are strictly intended for microscopy and taxonomy purposes and should not be consumed or cultivated.

It is important to be aware that possession of these spores is illegal in California, Idaho, and Georgia, but legal in 47 out of 50 states. Orders to prohibited states will be declined. Thank you for understanding and complying with these guidelines as we aim to provide accurate information and promote responsible practices.


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